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Embark on a journey of skincare knowledge with our educational glossary, deciphering the scientific terms that form the foundation of effective skincare. From antioxidants to peptides, amino acids to hyaluronic acid, this glossary is your guide to understanding the intricacies of skincare science. Elevate your skincare IQ and make informed choices on your path to healthier, radiant skin.

Amino Acids 

Amino acids are basic building blocks that builds proteins. There are 20 different types of amino acids. They are known to soothe skin, help moisturize, promote cellular repair, and reduce inflammation. 


In skincare, Antioxidants are the substances that inhibit or slow-down the oxidation process in skin tissue. The oxidation process is the result of formation of free radicals that result in hampering of skin’s self-repair system which could lead to hyperpigmentation, inflammation, acne, cell, and tissue damage resulting in aging. Antioxidants in skincare work as free-radical scavengers thus preventing or slowing down oxidation and are integral part of skincare products. 

Bioactive Ingredients

Bioactive ingredients are compounds that exert a direct and meaningful influence on the physiological and biological processes of the skin at the cellular level. In skincare, these potent compounds play a crucial role in the repair and regeneration of skin tissue. Peptides, growth factors, and antioxidants are carefully selected as bioactive ingredients for Luminéva skincare products. These elements contribute to the effectiveness and transformative impact of our formulations, working synergistically to enhance skin health and vitality.


Collagen is a key protein found in the skin tissue's extracellular matrix, playing a crucial role in maintaining skin firmness, elasticity, and hydration. Produced naturally by skin cells, collagen production diminishes with age, leading to issues such as fine lines, wrinkles, sagging, and dull skin. Therefore, skincare products containing molecules that stimulate collagen synthesis become essential in promoting skin health.


Emollients are skincare ingredients that create a protective film on the skin, forming a barrier to prevent moisture loss. They contribute to softening and soothing the skin, effectively managing dry, scaly, and itchy skin conditions.


The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin, serving as a protective barrier against various external factors such as UV radiation, pathogens, and dehydration. Comprising several layers, including the stratum corneum, the epidermis plays a vital role in preventing excessive water loss and preserving skin hydration.

Extracellular Matrix

Extracellular matrix is a structural fibrillar network that regulates cellular health in the human body. It is made up of collagen, elastin, proteoglycans, hyaluronic acid and cell regulating growth factors. In skin tissue, it provides the skin with elasticity, water retention, taut shape, and underlying firmness.

Fatty Acids

Fatty Acids are lipids or fats located in the outer layer of the skin surface, serve as the skin's barrier to prevent moisture loss and shield against environmental stressors. These compounds play a role in reducing inflammation and diminishing signs of aging on the skin. With age, there is a natural decline in these fatty acids in the skin, emphasizing their significance as essential ingredients in skincare products.


Humectants are skincare ingredients that help to attract water from the environment or deeper layers of the skin, aiding in the retention of the skin's moisture. Working in tandem with emollients, which help trap moisture in the skin's outer layer, humectants contribute to maintaining optimal skin hydration.

Hyaluronic Acid

Hyaluronic acid, a water-binding molecule abundant in the skin's extracellular matrix, plays a crucial role in skin hydration and healing. Possessing anti-aging, wound-healing, and anti-inflammatory properties, hyaluronic acid levels naturally decrease with age, necessitating its inclusion in skincare products. The low molecular weight variant operates on a cellular level to enhance wound healing, while the higher molecular weight variant aids in water retention and imparts a smoothing effect to the skin.


Peptides, or polypeptides, are short-chained amino acids found in naturally occurring proteins in skin tissue, crucial for regulating skin health. These peptides possess the ability to penetrate the outer layer of the skin, acting as messengers to other cells. Depending on the specific protein they form, peptides can enhance the skin barrier, reduce wrinkles, improve elasticity, mitigate inflammation, and contribute to clearing breakouts.


Polysaccharides are complex, long-chain carbohydrates formed by linking monosaccharide units through glycosidic linkages. In skincare, polysaccharides are significant as they are natural components of the skin, providing water-binding and antioxidant properties. They play a crucial role in skin repair and renewal. Notable polysaccharides in skincare formulations include hyaluronic acid, beta-glucans, fucoidan, and carrageenan.


Proteoglycans are complex molecules found in the skin's extracellular matrix (ECM), comprising core proteins with attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. They play a crucial role in maintaining skin hydration, elasticity, and strength by interacting with collagen and elastin. Additionally, proteoglycans absorb and retain water, promoting tissue plumpness and hydration. They also facilitate cellular repair and regeneration, contributing to anti-aging effects.

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are oxygen-containing molecules that possess one or more unpaired electrons, making them highly reactive. They play a significant role in both physiological and pathological processes within the skin. ROS can be generated by various factors, including mitochondrial dysfunction, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and environmental pollutants. Their accumulation can lead to oxidative stress, which contributes to skin aging, photoaging, autoimmune disorders, and, in severe cases, skin cancer. Antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) and tocopherols (Vitamin E) can help neutralize ROS and mitigate their damaging effects on the skin.


Sebum is an oily substance secreted by the sebaceous glands located in the skin of the face and scalp. Comprising various lipids such as triglycerides, fatty acids, wax esters, squalene, and cholesterol, sebum serves several essential functions. These include lubricating the skin, providing moisture, contributing to the formation of the skin's surface barrier, and possessing antibacterial properties. Excessive sebum production can result in oily skin and exacerbate acne formation, while inadequate production can lead to dryness and flakiness of the skin.

Trans Epidermal Water Loss

Trans Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL) refers to the natural process of water passing from inside the body through the skin and into the surrounding atmosphere. While TEWL is a normal occurrence, it can increase when the skin's protective barrier is compromised or damaged. The measurement of TEWL involves the use of a probe that detects fluctuations in water vapor density on the skin's surface. Monitoring TEWL provides insights into the skin's health and hydration status.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A, also known as retinol or retinoids, plays a crucial role in supporting skin health and is readily absorbed by the skin. It is known to reduce the appearance of wrinkles, sagging, hyperpigmentation, and acne. However, these molecules can be irritating and increase sensitivity to sunlight when applied topically during the daytime. Therefore, it is recommended to use them exclusively during the night.

Vitamin B Complex

Vitamin B Complex consists of essential water-soluble vitamins that play crucial roles in skin tissue, including metabolism, antioxidant functions, cellular signaling, and regeneration. The vitamins included in Vitamin B Complex are Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacinamide (B3), Pantothenic Acid (B5), Pyridoxine (B6), Biotin (B7), Folic acid (B9), and Cobalamin (B12).

Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory water-soluble ingredient commonly found in skincare formulations. It helps reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, diminishes dullness, minimizes hyperpigmentation and dark spots, retains moisture, and reduces acne in human skin.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E, also known as tocopherol, is an oil-soluble skincare antioxidant and moisturizing ingredient commonly found in skincare formulations. It aids in reducing UV rays related skin damage, supports wound healing, and provides anti-aging properties to human skin.

Vitamin F

Vitamin F is an essential fatty acid rich in Omega-6, contributing to the strength and health of the stratum corneum, the outer layer of the skin. This ingredient aids in moisturizing the skin and reducing issues such as acne, dryness, and wrinkles.

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